Saturday, 30 July 2011

Saint Peter's Successor

Saint Peter's Successor According to the Catholic Church
According to the book of popes, in Latin liber pontificalis, which is the official Catholic record of all the popes, Saint Peter is the first pope, and Linus is his successor. Not Saint Mark the Evangelist, who Peter called his son, and not any other of the Evangelists, Matthew, Luke and John, but Linus, who did not write one word in the New Testament!

The Successors of Saint Linus
The book of popes goes on to list the successor of Linus, and so on, down to the present day, calling each of these men by the title of pope. Some other titles attributed by the Catholic Church to the popes are: holy father and vicar of Christ on earth.
No author of the New Testament is considered by the Catholic Church to be Peter's successor, even though Saint Peter did not mention Linus at all in his two epistles, but named Mark, calling him his son.

Saint Mark the First Evangelist
Saint Mark is generally considered to be the first of the three synoptic Evangelists, followed by Matthew and Luke, who each based their own version of the Gospel on that of Saint Mark. Saint John is the fourth Evangelist, who gives an account of Jesus' mission based on his own personal testimony, and therefore is not part of the synoptic cycle.

Saint Mark was not one of the original twelve disciples, and wrote his version of the Gospel following the testimony that Saint Peter imparted to him. In fact, Mark was Peter's disciple, and the one whom Saint Peter chose as his personal adjutant and successor! Without Mark, Peter could not have made known in writing to later generations that which we commonly know as the Gospel according to Saint Mark.

Peter did not write anything, and relied on Mark to write down his personal testimony of Jesus. For this reason he declared that Mark is his son. Not Linus, whom he never mentioned! Linus may be a saint, he may have been a good man, but according to the New Testament, he is not Peter's successor.

The Popes Unveiled
The line of popes that follows Saint Linus down to the present day, would lose all validity if Saint Mark is universally recognised as the first Evangelist and Saint Peter's son, meaning his successor.

Where would the Christian Church be without the Evangelists? We would have no Church if they had not written down the Word of Jesus and his deeds. The Evangelists, as the New Testament clearly shows, never called themselves by the name of holy father, or used the term pope. Linus did not write one word in the New Testament, and neither did any other of the men who the Catholic Church considers successors of Saint Peter.

Who do you believe is Saint Peter's successor?
Do you believe that the Catholic Church, which started to compile the book of popes many centuries after Saint Peter's apostolic mission, is right in declaring another person as the successor of Saint Peter?
Feel free to leave your comment!

Read on: St. Peter the Apostle chose St. Mark as his successor, not the popes:

The meaning of Zion in St. Peter's primacy:

Thursday, 14 July 2011

Celtic Bagpipe Music

Celtic Bagpipe
One of the most important instruments in Celtic music is the bagpipe. It is traditionally played in Scotland, Northumbria, Ireland, Canada and the USA. The term Celtic bagpipe music can be used to define a musical tradition in areas inhabited by people of Celtic origin. 

Bagpipes of British Celtic Origin
Common to England, Scotland, Ireland, Canada and the United States of America, the bagpipe of Celtic origin is composed of an airbag, blowpipe, chanter and drones. Some bagpipes have bellows instead of a blowpipe. Amog the British bellows bagpipes are the Northumbrian and Lowland pipes.

Difference Between Blowpipe and Bellows
The blowpipe is the mouthpiece used to inflate the bag with air from the player's mouth. Highland bagpipes of Scotland are mouth-blown. The bellows is an alternative way to inflate the bag with air, and is placed between the player's upper left arm and the side of their chest. The piper inflates the bag with air through movement of the arm. 

The chanter is the finger piece with which the player gives the notes, and comprises a set of holes, similar as with a flute. The melodious tune of the bagpipe is given by the chanter.

Bagpipes of British origin usually have a set of three drones, these being placed on the piper's shoulder and upper left arm. The drones vary in pitch, and each gives a distinct and constant droning sound that accompanies the melody given by the chanter. One of these is known as the tenor drone.

For more on British bagpipes, read on:

Caption: Canterbury Cathedral

Wednesday, 13 July 2011

Saint Patrick's Letter to Coroticus

Christianity Among the Picts
Were the Picts Christianised in the time of Saint Patrick? The letter written by Saint Patrick to Coroticus is generally acknowledged as being an indirect confirmation that Christianity had reached the Picts by the first half of the fifth century. The wording in Saint Patrick's letter, though, is incoherent with regards to the Picts, who are three times mentioned in it, and twice referred to as “apostate Picts”.

The feasible interpretation of the wording “apostate Picts” is that Saint Patrick is referring to Christian Picts who he believed had diverged from the Law of Christianity, or possibly from some established and even questionable doctrines of the Church.

Raid Conducted by Coroticus
The context of the letter, which is addressed to Coroticus and his soldiers, describes a raid that had taken place in Ireland, in which a number of Christians had been slain, while others were taken prisoner to Britain and sold as slaves to the Scots and the Picts.

The letter does not give light to the title of Coroticus, who may be a local chieftain of the Britons or a governor acting within the authority of Rome. Patrick merely describes him as a tyrant. There is no reference to the geographical area where this leader governed, which could be anywhere along the western coast of Britain from Strathclyde to Wales.

Saint Patrick Condemns Coroticus
The letter excludes the participation of Scots and Picts in the raid, but condemns Coroticus for having carried out the raid and for selling the Christian prisoners to the Scots and the Picts rather than releasing them at the request of Saint Patrick.

Patrick's letter does not indicate that Christians among the Picts had any participation in the whole affair. Similarly, Saint Patrick's own deportation from Britain to Ireland at the hands of Irish raiders could not be attributed to the Christians of Ireland.

Saint Patrick's Fulminations at the Scots and Picts
The letter to Coroticus is particularly emotional, being written by the same man who had previously converted the people who had been either slain or enslaved, which could explain the anguish in his words as being generally directed against whole populations, including any Christians among them. Furthermore, it does not explain whether Saint Patrick is interceding only for enslaved Christians, or also for any other Irish people who may have been among those enslaved.

However, the episode that took place, by no means the only of its kind in that period, has served, paradoxically, to confirm that Christianity had already reached the Picts by the middle of the fifth century, which is the period when Saint Patrick's letter was written.

It is unlikely that fifth century Pictish Christians living among the greater Pictish population would have held deported people as slaves, and there is no evidence in Saint Patrick's letter to Coroticus to justify the belief that Christianity among the Picts was in any way apostate.

Written by D. Alexander

Saint Kentigern of Scotland:

For more on the early Scottish Church, read on:

Read also: The Celtic origins of the English Church:

The British Isles in the Neolithic Stone Age:

Tuesday, 12 July 2011

The First Written Translation of the Gospel

The original written Gospel in Greek is a translation from Aramaic.

The Gospel in Aramaic
Jesus preached the Gospel in Aramaic, and his followers translated the Gospel into Greek. As a result, the books and epistles in the New Testament, including the four versions of the Gospel, were all written in Greek during the first century AD. Throughout the ages, these original biblical scripts have been carefully copied in order to maintain their authors’ exact words.

The New Testament's historical authority is based on the grounds that it was written during the first century and is a translation of Jesus' spoken Gospel. As the New Testament does not contain any teachings from later periods, it does not deviate from the Gospel of Jesus.

The Four Evangelists
The English term Gospel is a translation from the Greek word Evangelion, which means the good message. The authors of the four versions of the Gospel are called Evangelists. The four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.

The Evangelist Matthew
Saint Matthew may be one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, but he could also be another person with the same name as the Matthew known in the Gospel, one with access to the apostolic testimony of his time. It has been suggested that he originally wrote his gospel in Aramaic, but this theory is without historic foundation, as no such script has ever been known to the Church.

The Evangelist Mark, Son of Peter
Saint Mark is not among the original twelve disciples, but he had close contacts with the other Apostles. The Apostle Peter, in his first Epistle, states that Mark is his son. The meaning of this title is that of disciple, and also adjutant, and so it can be reasonably assumed that the Evangelist Mark wrote his version of the Gospel following Peter’s direct account of the Word of Jesus.

The Evangelist Luke
Saint Luke, author of the third written gospel, is also the author of the book of Acts of the Apostles. He is not mentioned among the twelve disciples, yet his written testimony is of fundamental importance within the Church. In his book of Acts, he describes how the Church was founded in Jerusalem and subsequently spread to many towns and regions far and wide. There can be no doubt that Luke had close contacts with Saint Peter, as he is the main narrator of Peter’s apostolic mission.

The Evangelist John
Saint John is the youngest of the twelve disciples of Jesus, as he himself states in his gospel. Apart from being the author of one of the four written gospels, he is also the author of the book of Revelations and of three epistles. It was towards the end of the first century when he put ink to paper and presented his accounts as they are revealed in the New Testament.

Successive Written Translations of the Gospel
Over the centuries, disputes arose concerning ecclesiastic authority. From the fourteenth century onwards, reformists in England and Western Europe began to question the position of papal Rome with regards to doctrines within the Church, arguing that the Word of Jesus must be made known as it is written in the New Testament and translated into the spoken languages of different peoples. A law from the Vatican in fact prohibited the use of the Bible other than in Latin.

The English and European reformists started translating the Bible in the common tongues of the people, thus making the Gospel of Jesus comprehensible. Many papal doctrines that did not derive from Jesus' original preaching of the Reign of God were challenged, for they were found to be contrary to the Gospel.

Long before the Reformation, the Orthodox Church had already challenged Roman papal supremacy, dedicating time and effort to render translations of the original New Testament in different languages. During the ninth century, the two Orthodox missionaries Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica preached the Word to the Slavs who inhabited the Balkans. In order to translate the Holy Scriptures from Greek into Slavonic they formed the Cyrillic alphabet, ascribing a letter to each phonetic sound in the Slavic language.

Jesus preached the Gospel in Aramaic, which was the common language in Galilee and Judea during the first century, and his spoken words were written by the Evangelists in Greek. These writings are the first written translation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ!

Article written by D. Alexander.

Monday, 11 July 2011

Dover by the Sea

Britannia's Oldest Settlement
Dover, of which the Celtic name is Dubra, meaning the Waters, is Britain's first and oldest port, and is home to the Bronze Age Boat. Dover is probably Britain's oldest settlement, and thus can be considered the cradle of civilization in the British Isles. It is said that Dover also gave the Celtic name of Albion to Britain.

Church and Light Tower by the Sea
Britannia's Light Tower Church within the Castle-walls stands upon the White Cliffs of Dover, above the port and harbour. Standing in the East-West line of the cosmic order, this church indicates a road leading directly to the foundations of Christ's Church.

Folkestone Road: Road of the People's Stone
The Foundations of the Church of Christ are to be found along Folkestone Road in Dover. The etymology of this name is from Old English and means Folca's Stone, Folca being a man's name with the meaning of People, Folk, Nation. Destiny so willed it that the road along which the foundations of the Church of Jesus Christ are to be found is called by this name, as Christ is the Corner-Stone. Upon the foundations of his Church Prosperity will come.

Jesus is the Son of Man, to whom the name Folca can quite readily be associated, and being also the Son of God, it is to the founding stone of his Church that the road leads from the Fair Lady's Light Tower Church standing on the White Cliffs of Dover.   
Our Celtic Mother Britannia Fair! 

Read on: Christ's Church revealed in Dover:

The Holy Drone: Sarge held the Drone (the note) as Britannia's Soldiers entered the Church carrying gifts of thanksgiving in the name of the Fair Lady.
And the Chanters played.

Written by D. Alexander

Sunday, 10 July 2011

Kent and the Industrial Revolution

Kent, How Agriculture Prevailed Over Industry
iron ore and coal were the two natural resources essential to the Industrial Revolution, yet Kent's iron ore mines were empty and the coal was too deep.
Kent is commonly known as the Garden of England. What is not common is how Kent challenged the Industrial Revolution and managed to maintain this title in all England!

The Weald

The clue to this success starts in the Weald, which spreads from southern Kent to Sussex and Surrey and on into Hampshire. The name comes from old English and means forest. The whole area used to be densely covered with woods and forests and over a period of many centuries was a source for timber production. Many of England’s ships were built with Wealden timber. The Wealden areas of Kent and East Sussex also had iron ore in plenty.

The timber and iron production made this part of the Weald into one of England’s important industrial centres during the Middle Ages, and the abundance of wood in the vicinity of the iron ore mines supplied cheap fuel for the furnaces without incurring into great expenses for the transport.

The Industrial Revolution

During the nineteenth century – the period which saw the Industrial Revolution change British society – factories appeared in large numbers in the towns and villages located in the vicinity of coal and iron ore mines, as this enormously reduced the cost of transport of the coal and iron ore over long distances to far away factories. In that period the roads were little more than beaten earth-tracks, and the railway still did not exist. As a result, miners and factory workers moved to these new industrial centres by their millions, often bringing their families with them, and within decades villages became towns and small towns became industrious cities.

Kent Resisting the Industrial Revolution

When machines powered by steam made their appearance around the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Weald’s iron ore had been used up, making the mines unproductive. Consistent numbers of Kent’s Wealden population actually moved to other areas of the County. Adding to this, the vast coal reserves in Kent had still not been discovered, as they are very deep and so escaped detection.

Kent’s coal reserves were found around the end of the nineteenth century, but it proved too difficult and uneconomic to extract the coal from under the ground. Consequently only a few mines in Kent remained in production, not far from Dover, but with unsatisfactory results for the mining companies, and the quarries were eventually closed.
Kent was preserved for agriculture owing to the fact that Kentish generations had already exploited the iron ore, and because nature made Kent’s coal largely inaccessible and therefore unproductive to mine. These two factors prevented the transformation of Kent into a centre of mass mining and industrial production, as hundreds of thousands of people would otherwise have moved into the County and large cities would have developed out of small towns and villages.
The Garden of England
Throughout the twentieth century and on into the present millennium, Kent has maintained a position of preeminence in agricultural production, cultivating about half of England’s orchards and accounting for half of the national hop production, as well as being home to intensive horticulture. Important food-processing factories employ thousands of people in various locations within the County.

Agriculture has remained one of Kent’s major sources of revenue because the transport of goods over long distances has gradually become more expensive owing to increasing fuel costs. As a result, imports of food from abroad produced at considerably lower costs than in Britain lose some of their competitiveness, whereas Kent’s vicinity to London, whose markets require a daily supply of food for millions of people, has continued throughout the twentieth century to be an incentive to cultivate the Garden of England.

Written by D. Alexander

UK Unemployment in 2012

Will There Be Unemployment in the UK in 2012?
The British Government is taking measures to combat unemployment and bring employment home to British people in the United Kingdom. It is hoped that in the future there will no longer be a situation allowing 90% of jobs in the UK to go to foreign workers, and that the year 2012 will see a change in unemployment figures.

Newspapers in Britain have highlighted the incredible figures on job discrimination, showing the total disparity in job distribution that British people are obliged to endure in the UK.

Lost Generation in 2012 Through Unemployment?
The British Government has openly spoken out to private sector employers in the UK, asking them to change this unbearable situation, to employ British workers and not rely on foreign labour.

The Work and Pensions Secretary Iain Duncan Smith has spoken of a lost generation, and many people are wondering for how long the discriminatory work distribution can go on in the UK, where so many factories and farms employ almost exclusively Polish or other workers from Eastern Europe, and where English is hardly spoken at work.

Unemployment and Discriminatory Definitions in the UK
Over the past few years, a bad habit has been spreading in the United Kingdom, a tendency on the part of a vocal minority, including some employers in search of cheap labour, to define British unemployed people as lazy and unwilling to work.

Although such language is based on a note of hate-propaganda that led to the persecution of the Germans after two world wars and the systematic destruction of German economic productivity, and leads to racial discrimination, such as giving about nine tenths of all jobs to foreign workers and consigning millions of people to living on benefits, it has thus far gone largely without rebuke in the United Kingdom.

The question is, will the British Government take decisive measures to clamp down on this unacceptable and intolerable behaviour and bring private-sector employers in factories and on farms to respond for their actions?

2012: Year of Prosperity in Britain
Will the year 2012 see prosperity in Britain? It is unlikely to happen if nine jobs out of ten go to foreign workers, who consequently can afford to look after their own children and pay their mortgage or rent, while so many British people are systematically made object of racial discrimination in the United Kingdom.

Home evictions for failure to pay the mortgage or rent are expected to reach over 40,000 a year, and a study has revealed that suicides in Britain are often related to unemployment. In order for this to change, the British Government will have to come to the final encounter with those private-sector employers who have had a great time calculating their own private financial gains by employing hard-working foreign labour in place of British workers.

Education and housing demands in the UK to accommodate mass immigration go at the expense of the Country, not at the expense of the private-sector employers. And it is at the expense of millions of unemployed British people who have to make do with benefits from the State. With a national debt of over £900 billion, and so many people languishing in unemployment, the British Government has realised that the present situation can no longer continue.

To achieve prosperity in Britain in 2012, the Government will have to introduce employment laws that put an end to private-sector racial discrimination against British people. This would be an important step to making British society a fair society, where private-sector employers can no longer dictate the laws of employment to their own exclusive and personal advantage.
Then we might see prosperity reigning in the United Kingdom in the year 2012.

Article written by D. Alexander 10 July 2011

Tony Blair receives award in Poland for giving British jobs in Britain to Poles:

Read on: British Party, employment not unemployment, campaigning for a fair society.

Unemployment in Britain in 2011:

UK Jobs: how British people are excluded from basic sectors of employment in the UK.

Friday, 8 July 2011

The Battle of Edgehill

At Edgehill in 1642, two English armies headed into battle to solve a constitutional dispute between King and Parliament.


King Charles I had assembled his army on a hill overlooking the road to London, but the Earl of Essex placed his Parliamentarian army on the plain below the hill. He had no intention of sending his forces in an uphill attack to do battle against the King's army entrenched on higher ground.  

The Battle
The Royalist army could not remain on the heights, as the risk of being surrounded and running out of supplies was too high. King Charles descended with his army onto the plain, and the battle of Edgehill was fought on flat ground.

The Opening Battle of the English Civil War
The battle of Edgehill was the first major military confrontation in the English Civil War, fought between 1642 to 1651, a war that would also involve Wales, Scotland and Ireland, with the last battles being fought in Scotland in 1652 and in Ireland in 1653.

Strategy at the Battle of Edgehill
King Charles I was marching on London with a great army to prevent Parliament from gaining control over England, while Parliament had sent an even greater army to oppose him. From a strategical point of view, the Battle of Edgehill could have been decided in favour of King Charles, who had placed the cavalry under the command of his nephew, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, an experienced and daring cavalry commander.

Prince Rupert had it within his power at Edgehill to attack the Parliamentary army from both flanks and the rear with thousands of men on horse, for he had expelled almost all the opposing cavalry from the field, while King Charles's infantry would have taken on Parliament's army from the front. But at the decisive moment of victory, Rupert abandoned the field, taking all the King's cavalry with him, and did not return until dusk, only to find two embattled armies in a position of stalemate on the battlefield.

Read on to find out the strategy of the two English armies:

Thursday, 7 July 2011

Early Celtic Saints of Scotland

Before the advent of Roman Catholicism, the Celtic Church spread through all the lands that were later to become Scotland.

The Scottish Church
The Scottish Church draws its origins from the populations who inhabited the lands that became Scotland. In the fourth century, the three Celtic groups living in these territories were the Scots, Picts and Britons, each group being established within its own regions. The common belief in one Church united these populations long before they joined into one kingdom.

Early Celtic Saints as Missionaries
The early Celtic saints who became missionaries in Scotland include Saint Ninian in the fifth century, and Saint Kentigern and Saint Columba in the sixth century. The Christianity which they taught and lived for is based on the original first century teachings of the Apostles.

Christian Worship in Scotland
These Celtic saints were not the object of worship, and they did not teach people to worship other mortal persons, including the saints who had died. There was no worship of images or relics, as the original Faith of the Scottish Church did not deviate from the written Word of the Scriptures.

The Sabbath
In his book The Church in Scotland, Professor James C. Moffatt wrote: “It seems to have been customary in the Celtic churches of early times, in Ireland as well as Scotland, to keep Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath, as a day of rest from labour.”

Article written by D. Alexander 7 July 2011

Read more on the early Church in Scotland:

Read about Saint Kentigern of Scotland:

Wednesday, 6 July 2011

Fast Food Meat Diet

Fast food diets based on meat have become very popular, but the ingredients they contain are not necessarily evident to the eye.

What is a Fast Food Diet?
A diet based on fast food is a tendency to eat meals that have been prepared quickly. This saves time in cooking, and usually turns out cheaper than a traditional meal. Fast food meat, though, such as a sausage or a burger, is a compressed form of minced meat that could contain ingredients that one would not normally eat.

Fast Food Meat
As the ingredients in fast food, such as sausages, burgers and doner kebabs, are not individually visible to the eye, it's hard to determine what this kind of meat product contains, and how much fat is mixed with the meat. It is also hard to know how much saturated fat is in the sausage, burger or doner kebab.

If these ingredients were distributed individually on a plate, many people would probably not eat the whole meal, but once compressed into a single item and heated, these same ingredients are then consumed as a fast food meal based on meat.
For more on what is inside a fast food meat diet:

Fast Food Diets Based on Meat

Fast food diets based on meat and fat do not reveal the composition of the ingredients
What is a Diet?
Fast food diets have changed people's eating habits in the western world, with cheap ready-made meals and sugar-rich drinks being consumed in place of more traditional meals. Britain's National Health Service (NHS), in its online publication NHS choices diet, reviewed 28. 01. 2010, indicates the term diet as referring to 'the food that a person eats during the course of a day or a week'.

This guideline assumes that people need to know what they are eating. Many people following a fast food diet based on meat and soft drinks, however, may be unaware of the amounts of fat, salt and sugar they are consuming, as fast food products are each made up of different ingredients. This unawareness could be one of the reasons that contribute to the wide-spread consumption of fast foods in western society, yet there are also other decisive factors.

The Fast Food Time-Factor

One reason why people go for fast food lies in the name fast food: a dish that is already prepared, heated and ready for eating. One need only order, and it will be served immediately, or at least within a very short time. Plenty of time is spared, as no shopping is involved, no carrying bags of food through the town all the way to the door-step, no unpacking of shopping inside the kitchen. Vegetables needn't be cleaned and sliced, and sticky wrappers containing meat needn't be disposed of in the bin. There is no need to stand in front of the oven and hot-plates tending to the cooking. Pots, pans, plates and cutlery needn't be washed and dried after the meal has been eaten.

The Fast Food Cost-Factor

Fast food is generally cheap, as the ingredients it contains are produced using low-cost products. Fast food meat burgers and sausages contain a high content of fat, while water-based soft drinks contain added gas and sugar. Burgers and sausages are produced in enormous quantities in food-processing factories using machinery. The production method is cheap, and the resulting product is a minced and compressed mixture of meat and fat.

It can actually work out cheaper to buy a ready-prepared fast food meal than to buy the ingredients in a shop, even without calculating the time saved on shopping, cooking and washing the dishes. The reason for this lies in the high amount of fat in fast food meat ingredients and the fact that meat cuttings and fat have been compressed into a paste that, once shaped into a burger or sausage, needs only a short time to be heated and cooked.

Fast Food Appearance
Fast foods are usually represented by big pictures visible inside the catering shops that serve them, such as a bread-roll containing a large hamburger, dressing and tomato ketchup. This often attracts the appetite of passers-by, and, combined with the low cost factor in obtaining a fast food meal, has a tremendous effect on people's decision to opt out of a cooking session at home or a more expensive meal in a restaurant.

The combination of fast food with drinks produced from water to which gas and sugar have been added, completes the diet cycle deriving from a fast and economic meal. Traditional drinks like ale, wine and mineral water do not tend to be consumed with a typical fast food dish, whereas artificially sweetened drinks commonly served with fast food have an appealing effect on a person's appetite owing to the gas they contain.

The visual aspect of fast food meat products does not reveal their content of fat and assortments of different meat, and so a burger or a sausage is essentially a unified product deriving from various ingredients that cannot be separated from each other before being consumed. Whereas a steak or lamb-chop can be served with the fat, and this can be separated from the meat with knife and fork, a fast food burger or sausage can only be consumed with all its ingredients intact.

Calories and Nutritional Values in a Fast Food Diet
Fast food based on meat and animal fat does not visibly reveal the individual ingredients that make up the product, so the consumer cannot know how to determine its nutritional value and the calories it contains. This can result in excessive consumption of saturated fat, total fat and cholesterol. Similarly, the added sugar content in soft drinks remains an integral part of the beverage and is not discernible to the eye.

The recommended daily consumption of various kinds of food in relation to their nutritional value, and the total recommended intake of calories, both for children and adults, is based on government-approved guidelines. These guidelines have been set out in order to prevent obesity and various forms of diet-related problems, including heart disease, diabetes and high cholesterol.

Article written by D. Alexander

Tuesday, 5 July 2011

Proposed National Anthem of England Bonnie English Rose

Promoting English culture
The proposed national anthem of England on Celtic Britannia is Bonnie English Rose, also known as Rose of England.

Bonnie English Rose

Unemployment in Britain in 2011

British Jobs not for British People
Unemployment in Britain for the current year 2011 has reached a situation of no return, as 87% of vacant jobs go to foreign workers, and only 13% to British people. These unbelievable figures have been released by the press, and come from credible research conducted by members of Parliament.

According to figures released in the latter half of 2010 by the British Government, there are millions of people on out-of-work related benefits, of which about 1.5 million are on jobseekers allowance (JSA).

However, there are many British people looking for work who do not claim JSA or other out-of-work related benefits, and so the actual extent of unemployment in Britain is much higher than the official unemployment rate, which, according to the Guardian, is currently at 7.7%.

Available Jobs
The Office for National Statistics calculates the 2011 employment rate in Britain for people aged between 16 and 64 at 70.6%. The almost 30% of the population aged between 16 and 64 who are not working includes students, people receiving illness-related benefits, workers who have received an early pension and those who are in search of work.

The number of available jobs in Britain is generally a few hundred thousand, and so it can be assumed that JSA claimants and students leaving college or university are competing for these work offers at a rate of one vacant job for possibly 10 or 15 unemployed people.

Recent plans by the Government to reduce hundreds of thousands of public sector jobs over the coming years are bound to add to the competition between those who are unemployed and those leaving school or university.

But the fact that the vast majority of available jobs are given to foreign workers means that the chances of a British person in unemployment finding work are very slim indeed. It means that there are possibly 80 or 100 unemployed British people who stand an actual chance of getting one vacant job!

British Jobs for British People
Iain Duncan Smith, the Work and Pensions Secretary, announced on the 1 July 2011 that employers in the United Kingdom must do more to employ British people rather than rely on foreign labour.

Voices have been raised challenging this stance on the grounds of racial discrimination laws. Many in Britain, however, believe that discrimination against British people who are caught up in unemployment is the actual reason why almost 90% of jobs go to non British people.

Iain Duncan Smith spoke of a lost generation, of people depending on benefits, and of his desire to prevent another generation being consigned to dependency and hopelessness. He also said: “If government and business pull together on this, I believe we can finally start to give our young people a chance."

There is also a work placement scheme that is soon to come into effect. This law will enable the job centres managing unemployment in Britain to direct job seekers to available posts, where they will be required to work 30 hours a week for one month while receiving their usual benefits.

During this period, the employer will have the chance to assess the person's skill and ability, and decide whether to employ them in return for the standard wage. To refuse to attend a work placement, however, would lead to the job seeker losing Jobseekers allowance for at least three months.

It now remains to be seen if so many employers in Britain's private sector will go on discriminating against British people and consign another generation to hopelessness. They could hide behind accusations of racial discrimination against foreign workers if they are not allowed to continue employing almost exclusively foreign labour, but if they manage to continue along these lines, another generation will be lost to unemployment in Britain.

Article written by D. Alexander, 5 July 2011.

Related links:

UK jobs: how British people are systematically excluded from basic sectors of employment and denied the right to work.

British Party campaigning for the rights of British people to be free from racial discrimination when it comes to employment in our own Country:

Will Prosperity come to Britain in 2012?

Sunday, 3 July 2011

The Early Scottish Church

The origins of the Scottish Church go back to very early times, even to the second century.

Celtic Monasticism in Scotland
The cradle of the Scottish Church is to be found with Celtic monasticism, the specific form of Celtic Christianity that saw missionaries living among men, women and children in a settlement built around a church. All the families and individuals within the settlement lived as one spiritual family united in the faith in Christ. These were the early monastic settlements on which the Scottish Church was edified.

Early Scottish Abbots
The abbots of Celtic monasteries in Scotland did not recognise mortal persons, including the pope, as being superior to them in ecclesial authority. Holding true to the Word of the Gospel, Scottish abbots believed in the superior authority of Jesus Christ. Together with a number of their followers, they would travel far and wide to bring the Word of the Gospel to the people.

The monastery where a Scottish abbot resided was the centre of his ecclesial ministry, and the surrounding settlements he visited were part of his missionary territory. Scottish abbots, like all Celtic abbots in general, were priests of Jesus Christ, and their authority was the equivalent to that of a missionary bishop, regardless of whether they actually received the title of bishop.

Read more on the origins of the Scottish Church:

Saint Patrick's Letter to Coroticus:

Saint Kentigern of Scotland

Saint Kentigern is a Scottish missionary and Saint who founded monasteries and churches in Christ's name.

Kentigern Chief Lord and Royal Saint
Saint Kentigern was born in the year 518 and lived with his mother in the monastery of Culross in Fife. The Celtic meaning of the name Kentigern is: chief lord, and he is certainly a chief saint of Scotland. Kentigern's mother being a Pictish princess, the saint is of royal descent.

Scottish Music: chanters, drums and drones

Kentigern, a Saint of Scotland
June 2012

Birth of Kentigern and Foundation of Glasgow
The most notable historical reference to the saint comes from the Life of Kentigern, written around 1180 by a monk named Jocelyn, of Furness Abbey in Lancashire, England. His account seems to be based on at least one older manuscript written in Gaelic, but no trace of this original text has been found. Jocelyn, who was writing the book on behalf of his namesake, Bishop Jocelyn of Glasgow, took care to incorporate within it the oral accounts stemming from local tradition that had been passed down through the centuries.

In the year 518, a Pictish princess gave birth to Kentigern, the Celtic name meaning: chief lord. Leading up to the child's birth, she had found refuge with a monk named Serf, the abbot who founded the fifth century monastery of Culross in Fife, in central Scotland. Saint Serf provided sanctuary to mother and son within his monastery, and as the lad grew, he educated him in the Christian faith.

As a young man, Kentigern went forth as a missionary to Strathclyde, where he founded a monastery in the place that was to become Glasgow. As was Celtic custom, men, women and children gathered there to be part of the monastic community, and some Christians who inhabited the area asked him to become their bishop.

The name Glasgow is believed to derive from the Celtic Glas Cu, meaning “dear green place”, or possibly “dear family”. The monastery grew into a permanent settlement, one which was destined to become Scotland's largest city. Although it is possible that a settlement already existed before the saint's arrival, he is the earliest known person associated to the name Glasgow.

The Light Spreads from Glasgow
A local chieftain hostile to Christianity obliged Kentigern to leave Strathclyde, and so the abbot departed from his monastery and from his missionary territory, heading south towards Wales. There he made contact with the local Celtic Church and founded a monastery by the River Elwy, in Denbighshire. This monastic centre developed into a town that was to become known by the name of one of Kentigern's disciples, Saint Asaph, in Welsh Llanelwy.

Wherever the saint travelled, he brought with him the spirit of the early Celtic Church, the one form of Christianity that was to unite in a pure and indisputable childlike faith the Celtic peoples of Scotland, Ireland, Cumbria, Wales, Cornwall and Brittany. On his pastoral journey between Scotland and Wales, Kentigern stayed in Cumbria, converting many to the Faith of Christ and founding a number of churches.

Kentigern Returns to Strathclyde
Meanwhile, in the Brythonic kingdom of Strathclyde, a new king named Rhydderch Hael, Christian in faith, summoned Kentigern to return to his homeland. Accordingly, the great founder of monasteries and churches returned to his original ecclesiastical foundation, passing again through Cumbria, crossing the lands of Galloway, and reaching Strathclyde. Along his journey, many people turned out to greet him with profound joy.

The year of his return dates back to the second half of the mid 6th century, the period when Saint Columba of Ireland was working from the Scottish island monastery of Iona. Kentigern resumed his missionary work in Strathclyde, travelling among the people, and in course of time established his itinerary bishopric in Glasgow, where he founded a church by the river Molendinar Burn. On the site of this early church now stands the thirteenth century Cathedral.

An Episcopal See Reaching to the People
During his pastoral mission dedicated to Christ, Saint Kentigern and his followers also travelled north to the heartland of the Picts, establishing churches in the province of Mar, the area to the west of Aberdeen. In this region of Scotland, Saints Finan and Nidan, two followers of Kentigern who are believed to have accompanied him from Wales, are also recorded.

Evidence to the presence of saints in a particular area is often found in the form of churches dedicated to their name. This is also the case of those ecclesiastical foundations that hold true to the name of Saint Kentigern and his disciples in central and southern Scotland, in Brythonic Cumbria and in Wales. Thus, where historical accounts may seem to fade into legendary history and ancient folklore, the life of a Celtic saint is written in a myriad of silent words through the presence of an ancient stone building, testifying that the disciple of Jesus once stood there and gathered a multitude of people in the name of the Saviour.

Ancient sources mentioning Kentigern prior to Jocelyn's book have been found in Wales and Ireland, the oldest reference being from the Annals of Wales, which record the saint's death in the year 612. A fragmentary Life of Kentigern, compiled by an anonymous author around 1150 at the request of Bishop Herbert of Glasgow, brings together the many folklore accounts regarding Kentigern's family and the events that led to the saint's birth within Saint Serf's monastery at Culross.

Kentigern was greatly loved, and as a token of this, he received the appellative Mungo, meaning “the dear one”. According to local folklore, the motto of Glasgow has its origins in a sermon preached by Saint Kentigern: “Lord let Glasgow flourish through the preaching of thy word and praising thy name.”

Written by D. Alexander

  • Jocelyn, a monk of Furness Abbey, The Life of Kentigern, 1180.
  • Cynthia Whiddon Green, Saint Kentigern, Apostle to Strathclyde, University of Houston, 1998. 

Read also: Origins of the Scottish Church

Read on: The Early Church in Scotland